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Heartbleed Used to Steal Private Keys from OpenVPN

Threatpost for B2B - Fri, 04/18/2014 - 12:27

You can add OpenVPN to the growing list of products and services vulnerable to the Heartbleed OpenSSL vulnerability. Worse, researchers have been able to chain together exploits to steal private keys from traffic moving through the open source virtual private network software package.

A Swedish VPN company called Mullvad reported its findings to OpenVPN this week, which quickly urged users to update their OpenSSL library, revoke old private keys, generate new ones and create new certificates for the new private keys.

This process is going on worldwide for companies and Web-based services vulnerable to the bug in the OpenSSL crypto library’s heartbeat functionality. The bug returns 64KB of memory to any client or server making a request; if the pings are made often enough, an attacker could see in plaintext anything from user credentials to enough data to piece together a private SSL key.

Fredrik Stromberg, cofounder of Mullvad, said his company was able to extract “private key material” using a known Heartbleed proof-of-concept exploit. Stromberg told Threatpost that attacks against OpenVPN are a little more complicated because TLS session traffic is wrapped inside the OpenVPN protocol. Stromberg had to write a script that cracked the OpenVPN protocol and then used a Heartbleed exploit to dump memory similar to other attacks against Web servers, for example.

“What I did was I left it continuously running overnight pounding on my test server,” Stromberg said. “When I woke up in the morning, let’s say I had more than 1GB and less than 10GB in memory dumps, and found enough key material to reproduce a key.”

Stromberg joins a growing list of security researchers who have been able to extract private keys via Heartbleed exploits—a worst-case scenario. Most of the previous success stories were achieved through the CloudFlare Challenge against a purpose-built Web server. This is the first successful attempt against VPN software.

“I can tell you the actual exploitation part is exactly the same as against TLS on a web server or email server,” Stromberg said.

“You need to know how the VPN works, but this specification is open. It’s a little more advanced than a normal Heartbleed exploit, but not very hard if you’re a competent programmer.”

OpenVPN acknowledged Stromberg’s findings and replacing the keys for each peer that was active while linked against a vulnerable OpenSSL session, its advisory said. Mullvad offers a secure OpenVPN connection for its clients for a monthly fee. Stromberg said his Heartbleed test against OpenVPN was part of due diligence for his customer base.

As far as a fix goes, VPN providers must go a step beyond patching servers, revoking certs and reissuing new ones and manually send a certificate revocation list to users and browser makers so that they won’t be accepted going forward.

“If you do not do that, you will still be vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attacks if someone sets that up,” Stromberg said. “It would be easy to impersonate a server.”

Stromberg noted in an email to OpenVPN that the TLS-auth feature in the software marginally protects against Heartbleed to the extent that the HMAC key used to authenticate packets that are part of a TLS handshake is kept secret.

“This means that while a small business may benefit from using tls-auth because only the employees have access to the key, a public VPN service such as ours does not, because anyone who is a customer has access to the key.”

Experts Worry About Future of Critical Infrastructure Security

Threatpost for B2B - Fri, 04/18/2014 - 11:42

SAN FRANCISCO–The problem of critical infrastructure security has become a key issue in the last few years, as high-profile attacks such as Stuxnet and others have grabbed headlines and alerted politicians and others to the weaknesses facing these vital systems. It’s an issue that Eugene Kaspersky has been thinking about for a long time, and isn’t sure that the organizations running these systems are any closer to addressing these threats than they were several years ago.

As with many other things in technology, there’s a lot of disagreement in the industry about critical infrastructure and SCADA security issues, even over what exactly qualifies as critical infrastructure. The term often is applied to the systems that run things such as utilities, power grids, transportation systems and the like, and the networks and systems they control typically use arcane software. Many of those software packages haven’t been subjected to the kind of security testing an scrutiny that typical commercial software has, and the process of patching and updating them is difficult and laborious. 

The fragile nature of these systems has raised the concerns of security researchers, policymakers and others, and led to calls for regulation and standardization for security. What’s unclear in all of this is who or what entity should be involved in the creation of any standards. Should it be an international effort? Who should lead it?

Kaspersky, the CEO of Kaspersky Lab, said during an interview at the company’s Cyber Security Summit here, that he has little faith in any international push to develop such standards.

“I vote for less regulation in technology and innovation,” he said.

“The older I am, the less and less I believe in international projects. Let the nations do it themselves, and they can be an example for the rest of the world. I think the United States will be first and then the rest of the world can copy and paste.”

A big issue in the SCADA and critical infrastructure security world when it comes to regulation and standards is that in most countries, the government doesn’t own any of these systems; they’re all in the hands of private companies. Tom Ridge, the former secretary of the Department of Homeland Security and former governor of Pennsylvania, said during a keynote at the summit Tuesday that, at least in the United States, that presents a major obstacle.

“The government has no critical infrastructure of its own. It relies on the private sector for that, and when it goes down, the government goes down,” Ridge said. “National security and economic security are intertwined.”

The critical infrastructure networks in the U.S. are prime targets for attackers, as is the case in other countries, but Kaspersky said the U.S. likely is at the top of the target list for skilled attackers.

“It’s very difficult to compare who is better protected. The U.S. is the most developed IT country in the world,” he said. “It has many more SCADA systems than any other country, so the U.S. is the biggest target. But it also has the most resources. So which nation is better protected, the one with all of the systems and resources or the one with fewer systems and is a smaller target?”

The bad news is that attackers likely won’t discriminate. Attackers take what they can get, usually regardless of geographic location or ownership. But Kaspersky said he has confidence that the market ultimately will provide an answer to the problem of critical infrastructure security.

“If you have many competing companies there’s much more chance that one of these will come up with something innovative. I vote for competition. I believe in a world that has independent and competing businesses,” he said. “There’s a much better chance that the right answer will be found much faster.”

Like Apple’s TouchID, Galaxy S5 Vulnerable to Fingerprint Hack

Threatpost for B2B - Thu, 04/17/2014 - 15:03

Researchers published a video this week demonstrating how Samsung’s latest entry in the smartphone arena, the Galaxy S5, is vulnerable to a hack that involves lifting and copying fingerprints to trick the phone’s biometric sensor.

Much like the Apple iPhone 5S, the smartphone, which first hit the market last week, boasts a fingerprint scanner as an added layer of security.

Now the same research outfit that was able to hack the iPhone’s 5S’s Touch ID feature last year, Germany’s Security Research Labs (SRLabs), has managed to bypass a similar feature on the Galaxy S5. Like the iPhone hack the Galaxy hack relies on the attackers using a mold of a fingerprint; or in this case a lab-manufactured wood glue replica of a print, to carry out their attack.

In a video posted Tuesday the researchers claim their method allows for “seemingly unlimited authentication attempts without ever requiring a password.”

While this may sound like a pretty farfetched exploit vector – a user would have to have the Finger Scanner set up on this exact brand of phone and an attacker would have to go through the trouble of creating the fingerprint replica – as the folks from SRLabs note, it could have implications for those who use the new fingerprint scan feature on PayPal’s Android app.

That app allows users to transfer funds using their fingerprint as a biometric authenticator, meaning that if an attacker had access to your phone, and one of these fingerprint molds, they’d be able to make purchases and unsolicited money transfers from the account.

In the video the researchers demonstrate how an attacker could wire himself money via PayPal from a person’s debit account. Using the fingerprint replica it takes three swipes for PayPal to recognize the bogus fingerprint, but according to the researcher, attackers could be allowed “multiple attempts to make a successful swipe with this spoof.”

In a statement released by the company this week PayPal downplayed the issue, claiming they were taking SRLabs’ findings seriously but were confident that its app is still “easier and more secure” than using passwords or credit cards. PayPal added that it could simply deactivate cryptographic keys associated with fingerprints on accounts from lost or stolen devices and allow users to make a new one.

The company added that in the unlikely occurrence that one of its users gets duped by an attacker with one of these phony fingerprint scans, it will reimburse any losses they incur.

To use the S5’s fingerprint scanner, the phone requires users to swipe a finger eight times over the home button. The user can then use that fingerprint to lock their screen, verify their Samsung account or authenticate their PayPal account.

A number of critics have been vocal against using fingerprints as a biometric authentication measure for years now. Some of those voices, including researchers from the Chaos Computer Club (CCC) and SRLabs, have pointed out that whenever a fingerprint gets stolen, there’s no way to change it and that it’s easy to lift users’ fingerprints off of items, including their personal devices.

Still though, fingerprint spoofs, known in some circles as ‘fake fingers’ are not easy to produce. CCC hacker Starbug, who was famously the first to break Apple’s TouchID last fall, used a high resolution image of a fingerprint with latex to produce his.

“This demonstrates—again—that fingerprint biometrics is unsuitable as [an] access control method and should be avoided,” the CCC said in September.

Certificate Revocations Shoot Up in Wake of OpenSSL Heartbleed Bug

Threatpost for B2B - Thu, 04/17/2014 - 13:50

The after effects of the OpenSSL heartbleed vulnerability continue to spread through the technology industry, nearly two weeks after the details of the flaw were disclosed. One of the latest repercussions is a huge increase in the number of SSL certificates being revoked, as site owners and hosting providers go through the process of replacing vulnerable certificates.

Certificate authorities and other organizations maintain certificate revocation lists that browsers can use to determine whether a certificate on a given site has been revoked. Site owners will revoke certificates for a number of reasons, including security problems. Those revocations typically go unnoticed, unless a high-profile site is involved or there’s some event that causes a large number of sites to need to replace their certificates.

Enter heartbleed.

In the last few days, there has been a tremendous spike in the volume of certificate revocations.

A good portion of that increase–which saw revocations go from perhaps a few thousand a day to more than 70,000 earlier this month–can be attributed to CloudFlare replacing all of the certificates for sites that it manages. The company was one of the few organizations that got early warning about the OpenSSL bug before the software’s maintainers revealed the details.

“After learning the full extent of the bug and that it had been live on the Internet for two years, we started an investigation to see whether our private keys and those of our customers were at risk,” Nick Sullivan of CloudFlare wrote in a blog post.

“We started our investigation by attempting to see what sort of information we could get through Heartbleed. We set up a test server on a local machine and bombarded it with Heartbleed attacks, saving the blocks of memory it returned. We scanned that memory for copies of the private key and after extensive scanning, we could not find a trace of it.”

CloudFlare then issued a public challenge, asking researchers to see whether they could get the private key from a vulnerable server the company set up. Within a few hours, someone succeeded. And several other people later won the challenge, as well, retrieving the private key.

“A nagging question is why, when OpenSSL has functions to cleanse memory, are these chunks of keys being found in memory. We are continuing to investigate and if a bug is found will submit a patch for OpenSSL,” Sullivan wrote.

“The more HTTPS traffic the server serves, the more likely some of these intermediate values end up on the heap where Heartbleed can read them. Unfortunately for us, our test server was on our local machine and did not have a large amount of HTTPS traffic. This made it a lot less likely that we would find private keys in our experimental setting. The CloudFlare Challenge site was serving a lot of traffic, making key extraction more likely. There were some other tricks we learned from the winners about efficiently finding keys in memory.”

There’s been some discussion about whether it is practical for an attacker to retrieve the private key of a target server using the heartbleed attack, and Sullivan said he sees it as doable.

“Based on these findings, we believe that within two hours a dedicated attacker could retrieve a private key from a vulnerable server. Since the allocation of temporary key material is done by OpenSSL itself, and is not special to NGINX, we expect these attacks to work on different server software including non-web servers that use OpenSSL,” he wrote.


Tor Begins Blacklisting Exit Nodes Vulnerable to Heartbleed

Threatpost for B2B - Thu, 04/17/2014 - 11:40

The Tor Project has begun blacklisting exit nodes vulnerable to the Heartbleed vulnerability in OpenSSL.

Researcher Collin Mulliner, with the Systems Security Lab at Northeastern University in Boston, published the results of an experiment he conducted using a publicly disclosed Heartbleed proof-of-concept exploit against 5,000 Tor nodes. Mulliner said that 1,045 nodes, or a little more than 20 percent, were vulnerable to the bug.

Mulliner said only Tor exit nodes were leaking plaintext user traffic, including host names, credentials and web content. Mulliner conducted his experiment for three days last Friday through Sunday, and his results are a point-in-time snapshot. A post yesterday from Tor Project leader Roger Dingledine on the Tor mailing list said that 380 vulnerable exit keys were being rejected.

Heartbleed was publicly reported on April 7. The vulnerability lies in the heartbeat function in OpenSSL 1.0.1 to 1.0.1f which publicly leaks 64 KB of memory to any client or server pinging a web server running the vulnerable crypto library. The memory leaks can disclose in plaintext anything from user credentials to private server keys if the attack is repeated enough. Several researchers have already managed to retrieve private SSL keys in an online challenge from vendor CloudFlare. Speculation is that intelligence agencies and/or hackers may have been exploiting it since November. Mulliner said he did not try to extract private keys from Tor, nor did he think it was possible.

Tor promises anonymity to its users by using proxies to pass encrypted traffic from source to destination. Mulliner said he used a random list of 5,000 Tor nodes from the Dan.me.uk website for his research; of the 1,045 vulnerable nodes he discovered, he recovered plaintext traffic that included Tor plaintext announcements, but a significant number of nodes leaked user traffic in the clear.”

“I found a significant amount of plaintext user traffic, complete Web traffic, session IDs; everything you would find if you ran Heartbleed against a normal Web server,” Mulliner said.

Heartbleed saves attackers the work of setting up their own exit node and waiting for traffic to pass through it. Using Heartbleed, all a hacker would have to do is query a vulnerable exit node to obtain traffic, Mulliner said.

Dingledine yesterday published the first list of rejected exit nodes and said those nodes will not be allowed back on the network.

“I thought for a while about trying to keep my list of fingerprints up-to-date (i.e. removing the !reject line once they’ve upgraded their openssl), but on the other hand, if they were still vulnerable as of yesterday, I really don’t want this identity key on the Tor network even after they’ve upgraded their OpenSSL,” Dingledine wrote. He added that he hopes others will add to this list as other vulnerable relays are discovered.

Tor acknowledged some of its components were vulnerable to Heartbleed in a post to its blog on April 7.

Mulliner said it was a fairly straightforward process to write a script to run a Heartbleed proof of concept.

“Anybody who can get the Python script can play around with it,” Mulliner said, adding that there are likely fewer vulnerable Tor nodes now than when he ran his scans last week since some have likely been patched and Tor has begun blacklisting. “The data is dated, but it’s a good picture of that point in time.”

Kurt Baumgartner on APT Attacks in the Enterprise

Threatpost for B2B - Thu, 04/17/2014 - 10:59

Dennis Fisher talks with Kaspersky Lab security researcher Kurt Baumgartner about the specter of APT attacks in enterprises, what kind of tactics APT attackers are using now and the effect of the Heartbleed openSSL bug on the certificate  authority system.


Analysis: IT threat evolution Q1 2014

Secure List feed for B2B - Thu, 04/17/2014 - 07:00
According to KSN data, Kaspersky Lab products blocked a total of 1131000866 malicious attacks on computers and mobile devices in the first quarter of 2014.

Federal Court Rejects Lavabit’s Contempt Appeal

Threatpost for B2B - Wed, 04/16/2014 - 15:33

A Federal court struck down Lavabit’s appeal today, affirming contempt of court sanctions against the now-shuttered secure email provider that was forced to release its SSL keys to the FBI last year.

Those keys could have decrypted emails belonging to the company’s founder Ladar Levison along with Lavabit’s entire user base, a collective of 400,000 that reportedly included former National Security Agency contractor turned whistleblower Edward Snowden. Levison ultimately shut Lavabit down in August 2013 before disclosing the keys.

According to the ruling, issued today by the Unites States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, (.PDF) one of Lavabit’s biggest missteps is that it failed to raise its arguments before the District Court after it was initially held in contempt last year, something that “significantly alters the standard of review.”

Lavabit specifically argued against the Pen/Trap Statute, an order that allows the placement of a pen register and a trace-and-trap device on its system. Pen/Trap orders are court-ordered surveillance mechanisms that give the government access to all “non-content dialing, routing, addressing and signaling information” on a real-time basis for 60 days.

Lavabit’s appeal contended that the government overstepped the bounds of the Pen/Trap order when the FBI asked the firm to release its SSL keys.

Apparently Levison only made one statement in his appeal that related to the order and that was back in July when he objected to turning over the private keys, insisting the move would “compromise all of the secure communications in and out of his network.”

Levison’s argument was not comprehensive enough, in the eyes of the court, which called the remark “vague,” and simply a reflection of his personal angst at the time over having to comply with the order.

“Lavabit never challenged the statutory validity of the Pen/Trap Order below or the court’s authority to act. To the contrary, Lavabit’s only point below alluded to the potential damage that compliance could cause to its chosen business model,” Judge G. Steven Agee, who authored the decision, wrote in the ruling today.

Agee’s opinion – joined by Judges Paul Niemeyer and Roger Gregory – was that the Pen/Trap Order levied on Lavabit always covered the encryption keys.

“If Lavabit truly believed the Pen/Trap Order to be an invalid request for the encryption keys, then the Government’s continuing reliance on that order should have spurred Lavabit to challenge it,” the decision reads, adding that the company should have acted after the district court issued the order on Aug. 1.

“Lavabit failed to make its most essential argument anywhere in its briefs or at oral argument,” Judge Agee said.

Lavabit brought up a handful of other arguments – that the case should be viewed as a matter of “immense public concern,” that the firm was unrepresented during some of its proceedings, etc. – but the court found no merit in these arguments, choosing not to rule on these claims.

“We reiterate that our review is circumscribed by the arguments that Lavabit raised below and in this Court. We take this narrow course because an appellate court is not a freestanding open forum for the discussion of esoteric hypothetical questions,” Agee wrote regarding Lavabit’s claims.

“The district court did not err, then, in finding Lavabit and Levison in contempt once they admittedly violated that order,” the ruling says of Lavabit’s actions, in closing.

The 10-year-old encrypted email service used a single set of SSL keys for all of its users that would unlock all traffic coming in and out of the company’s network.

Levison publicly maintained in an interview last fall that the FBI was exceeding its statutory authority in demanding Lavabit’s keys and claimed he was being forced by law to keep quiet about the case.

Refusing to become a “listening post” for the FBI Levison elected to shut down the service in August amid looming legal threats that would have given the government access.

After filing his appeal Levison gave users a brief five day window of time in October to download their email archives and account data in October.

As Snowden is clearly tangled up in an ongoing criminal investigation his name isn’t directly mentioned in today’s ruling, but it’s common knowledge that it’s his information the FBI was seeking when it initially imposed the Pen/Trap Statute on Lavabit last year.

In a talk at February’s TrustyCon conference, one of Levison’s lawyers, former Electronic Frontier Foundation attorney Marcia Hofmann, said that the Lavabit case could prove to be just the beginning and that the incident should help prompt other outfits to reconsider how to handle government requests.

“We need to update our threat models. Ladar was worried about data at rest, not data in transmission. The threats are different than we thought. Security and privacy enhancing services are really in the crosshairs. To the extent that you design a service like Lavabit, you should be thinking about how you’re going to deal with government requests,” Hofmann said.

Oracle Fixes 104 Security Vulnerabilities in Quarterly Patch Update

Threatpost for B2B - Wed, 04/16/2014 - 12:32

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-->Software maker and database management company Oracle yesterday released its quarterly Critical Patch Update. The release resolves more than 100 security vulnerabilities, many of which received high common vulnerability scoring system base scores and should be applied as soon as possible.

Products affected by the patch include but are not limited to Oracle Database, Fusion Middleware, Hyperion, Supply Chain Product Suite, iLearning, PeopleSoft Enterprise, Siebel CRM, Java SE, and Sun Microsystems Products Suite, including Oracle Linux and Virtualization, and Oracle MySQL.

Last week, Oracle released a list of products affected by the Heartbleed OpenSSL vulnerability, as well as their current status with respect to vulnerable versions of the encryption library.

Among the patches that should be prioritized are two bugs in Oracle’s database products. The more severe of these two issues could lead to a full compromise of impacted Windows systems, though exploitation would require that an attacker authenticate him or herself. Other platforms like Linux and Solaris are less affected because the database does not extend into the underlying operating system there.

The update also closes off 20 Fusion middleware vulnerabilities, the most critical of which is remotely exploitable without authentication and could lead to a wide compromise of the WebLogic Server.

Also included in its April release are 37 Java vulnerabilities. Four of those received the highest possible CVSS ratings of 10.0. Oracle urges all user – home users in particular – to apply these patches immediately.

The patch update also fixes five vulnerabilities affecting Oracle Linux and Virtualization products. The most severe of these vulnerabilities could affect certain versions of Oracle Global Secure Desktop.

“Due to the relative severity of a number of the vulnerabilities fixed in this Critical Patch Update, Oracle strongly recommends that customers apply this Critical Patch Update as soon as possible,” wrote Oracle security assurance manager, Eric Maurice.

Earlier this month, researchers from Security Explorations disclosed more than two dozen outstanding issues with the company’s Java Cloud Service platform. There is no mention of that line of products in the update, so it appears that the company did not resolve those bugs. At the beginning or March, researchers at the London-based computer security firm Portcullis claimed to uncover four bugs in the Oracle’s Demantra Value Chain Planning suite of software. The update makes no mention of these vulnerabilities either.

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