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Chrome 40 Patches 62 Security Vulnerabilities, Pays Bounties Aplenty

Threatpost for B2B - Thu, 01/22/2015 - 13:45
Google released version 40 of the Chrome browser, patching 62 vulnerabilities, including close to two-dozen critical memory corruption flaws.

Details on Regin Malware Modules Disclosed

Threatpost for B2B - Thu, 01/22/2015 - 12:55
Researchers at Kaspersky Lab today released a detailed analysis of two modules belonging to the Regin malware platform, one for lateral movement, the other a backdoor.

Adobe Patches One Zero Day in Flash, Will Patch a Second Flaw Next Week

Threatpost for B2B - Thu, 01/22/2015 - 12:43
UPDATE–Adobe has released an emergency update for Flash to address a zero-day vulnerability that is being actively exploited. The company also is looking into reports of exploits for a separate Flash bug not fixed in the new release, which is being used in attacks by the Angler exploit kit. The vulnerability that Adobe patched Thursday is […]

An analysis of Regin's Hopscotch and Legspin

Secure List feed for B2B - Thu, 01/22/2015 - 05:00

With high profile threats like Regin, mistakes are incredibly rare. However, when it comes to humans writing code, some mistakes are inevitable. Among the most interesting things we observed in the Regin malware operation were the forgotten codenames for some of its modules.

These are:

  • Hopscotch
  • Legspin
  • Willischeck
  • U_STARBUCKS

We decided to analyze two of these modules in more detail - Hopscotch and Legspin.

Despite the overall sophistication (and sometimes even over-engineering) of the Regin platform, these tools are simple, straightforward and provide interactive console interfaces for Regin operators. What makes them interesting is the fact they were developed many years ago and could even have been created before the Regin platform itself.

The Hopscotch module MD5 6c34031d7a5fc2b091b623981a8ae61c Size 36864 bytes Type Win32 EXE Compiled 2006.03.22 19:09:29 (GMT)

This module has another binary inside, stored as resource 103:

MD5 42eaf2ab25c9ead201f25ecbdc96fb60 Size 18432 bytes Type Win32 EXE Compiled 2006.03.22 19:09:29 (GMT)

This executable module was designed as a standalone interactive tool for lateral movement. It does not contain any exploits but instead relies on previously acquired credentials to authenticate itself at the remote machine using standard APIs.

The module receives the name of the target machine and an optional remote file name from the standard input (operator). The attackers can choose from several options at the time of execution and the tool provides human-readable responses and suggestions for possible input.

Here's an example of "Hopscotch" running inside a virtual machine:

Authentication Mechanism (SU or NETUSE) [S]/N: Continue? [n]: A File of the same name was already present on Remote Machine - Not deleting...

The module can use two routines to authenticate itself at the target machine: either connecting to the standard share named "IPC$" (method called "NET USE") or logging on as a local user ("SU", or "switch user") who has enough rights to proceed with further actions.

It then extracts a payload executable from its resources and writes it to a location on the target machine. The default location for the payload is: \\%target%\ADMIN$\SYSTEM32\SVCSTAT.EXE. Once successful, it connects to the remote machine's service manager and creates a new service called "Service Control Manager" to launch the payload. The service is immediately started and then stopped and deleted after one second of execution.

The module establishes a two-way encrypted communication channel with the remote payload SVCSTAT.EXE using two named pipes. One pipe is used to forward input from the operator to the payload and the other writes data from the payload to the standard output. Data is encrypted using the RC4 algorithm and the initial key exchange is protected using asymmetric encryption.

\\%target%\pipe\{66fbe87a-4372-1f51-101d-1aaf0043127a}
\\%target%\pipe\{44fdg23a-1522-6f9e-d05d-1aaf0176138a}

Once completed, the tool deletes the remote file and closes the authenticated sessions, effectively removing all the traces of the operation.

The SVCSTAT.EXE payload module launches its copy in the process dllhost.exe and then prepares the corresponding named pipes on the target machine and waits for incoming data. Once the original module connects to the pipe, it sets up the encryption of the pipe communication and waits for the incoming shellcode.

The executable is injected in a new process of dllhost.exe or svchost.exe and executed, with its input and output handles redirected to the remote plugin that initiated the attack. This allows the operator to control the injected module and interact with it.

The Legspin module MD5 29105f46e4d33f66fee346cfd099d1cc Size 67584 bytes Type Win32 EXE Compiled 2003.03.17 08:33:50 (GMT)

This module was also developed as a standalone command line utility for computer administration. When run remotely it becomes a powerful backdoor. It is worth noting that the program has full console support and features colored output when run locally. It can even distinguish between consoles that support Windows Console API and TTY-compatible terminals that accept escape codes for coloring.

"Legspin" output in a standard console window with color highlighting

In addition to the compilation timestamp found in the PE headers, there are two references that point to 2003 as its true year of compilation. The program prints out two version labels:

  • 2002-09-A, referenced as "lib version"
  • 2003-03-A

In addition the program uses legacy API functions, like "NetBIOS" that was introduced in Windows 2000 and deprecated in Windows Vista.

Once started and initialized, it provides the operator with an interactive command prompt, waiting for incoming commands. The list of available commands is pretty large and allows the operators to perform many administrative actions. Some of the commands require additional information that is requested from the operator, and the commands provide a text description of the available parameters. The program is actually an administrative shell that is intended to be operated manually by the attacker/user.

Command Description cd Change current working directory dir
ls
dirl
dirs List files and directories tar Find files matching a given mask and time range, and write their contents to a XOR-encrypted archive tree Print out a directory tree using pseudographics
trash Read and print out the contents of the Windows "Recycle Bin" directory get Retrieve an arbitrary file from the target machine, LZO compressed put Upload an arbitrary file to the target machine, LZO compressed del Delete a file ren
mv
copy
cp Copy or move a file to a new location gtm Get file creation, access, write timestamps and remember the values stm Set file creation, access, write timestamps to the previously retrieved values mtm Modify the previously retrieved file timestamps scan
strings Find and print out all readable strings from a given file more Print out the contents of an arbitrary file access Retrieve and print out DACL entries of files or directories audit Retrieve and print out SACL entries of files or directories finfo Retrieve and print out version information from a given file cs Dump the first 10,000 bytes from an arbitrary file or from several system files:

advapi32.dll
kernel32.dll
msvcrt.dll
ntdll.dll
ntoskrnl.exe
win32k.sys
cmd.exe
ping.exe
ipconfig.exe
tracert.exe
netstat.exe
net.exe
user32.dll
gdi32.dll
shell32.dll

lnk Search for LNK files, parse and print their contents info Print out general system information:
  • CPU type
  • memory status
  • computer name
  • Windows and Internet Explorer version numbers
  • Windows installation path
  • Codepage
dl Print information about the disks:
  • Type
  • Free/used space
  • List of partitions, their filesystem types
ps List all running processes logdump Unfinished, only displays the parameter description reglist Dump registry information for a local or remote hive windows Enumerate all available desktops and all open windows view List all visible servers in a domain domains List the domain controllers in the network shares List all visible network shares regs Print additional system information from the registry:
  • IE version
  • Outlook Express version
  • Logon default user name
  • System installation date
  • BIOS date
  • CPU frequency
  • System root directory
ips List network adapter information:
  • DHCP/static IP address
  • Default gateway's address
times Obtain the current time from a local or remote machine who List the names of current users and the domains accessed by the machine net
nbtstat
tracert
ipconfig
netstat
ping Run the corresponding system utility and print the results tel Connect to a given TCP port of a host, send a string provided by the operator, print out the response dns
arps Resolve a host using DNS or ARP requests users List information about all user accounts admins List information about user accounts with administrative privileges groups List information about user groups trusts List information about interdomain trust user accounts packages Print the names of installed software packages sharepw Run a brute-force login attack trying to obtain the password of a remote share sharelist Connect to a remote share srvinfo Retrieve current configuration information for the specified server netuse Connect, disconnect or list network shares netshare Create or remove network shares on the current machine nbstat List NetBIOS LAN adapter information run Create a process and redirect its output to the operator system Run an arbitrary command using WinExec API exit Exit the program set Set various internal variables used in other shell commands su Log on as a different user kill Terminate a process by its PID kpinst Modify the registry value:
[HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon] System
This value should normally point to "lsass.exe". svc
drv Create, modify or remove a system service help
? Print the list of supported commands

The Legspin module we recovered doesn't have a built-in C&C mechanism. Instead, it relies on the Regin platform to redirect the console input/output to/from the operators.

Conclusions

Unlike most other Regin modules, Legspin and Hopscotch appear to be stand-alone tools developed much earlier. The Legspin backdoor in particular dates back to 2003 and perhaps even 2002. It's worth pointing that not all Regin deployments contain the Legspin module; in most cases, the attackers manage their victims through other Regin platform functions.

This means that Legspin could have been used independently from the Regin platform, as a simple backdoor together with an input/output wrapper.

Although more details about Regin are becoming available, there is still a lot that remains unknown. One thing is already clear – what we know about Regin is probably already retired information that has been replaced by new modules and techniques as time passes.

Windows 10 Preview and Security

Secure List feed for B2B - Wed, 01/21/2015 - 15:25

Microsoft presented a preview of their newest "experience", Windows 10, over a live stream this morning. The release is expected later this year. This isn't envisioned as just an OS for desktops, but it brings support as a truly broad computing platform. They claim to have built Windows 10 with "more personal computing" in mind, and it's an ambitious push into seamlessly bringing together desktop computing, holographic computing (awesome!!!), mobile devices, gaming and IoT, a move to the "Store", productivity applications, big data services and sharing, new hardware partner technologies, and cloud computing for a "mobility of experience". They skimmed over "Trust" only in light of data privacy issues. From what I have seen, pushing aside security is a somewhat disappointing theme for all of the vendors at their previews, not just Microsoft. There is, however, a very long list of enhanced security features developed into this new codebase along with a massive amount of new attack surface introduced with this new platform.

Microsoft is attempting to better tighten down the new version of Windows the operating system by disallowing untrusted applications from installing and verifying their trustworthiness with their digital signature. This trusted signing model is an improvement, however, this active handling is not perfect. APT like Winnti's attacks on major development shops and their multiple, other significant ongoing attack projects demonstrate that digital certificates are readily stolen and re-used in attacks. Not just their core group's winnti attacks, but the certificates are distributed throughout multiple APT actors, sharing these highly valued assets, breaking the trust model itself to further their espionage efforts.

With seamless integration of all these data sharing services across computing resources, authentication and their underlying credentials and tokens cannot be leaked across services, applications, and devices. Pass-the-hash attack techniques frequently used by targeted attackers haunted corporate organizations using Windows for almost a decade. These types of credential theft techniques will have to be better protected against. And Flame introduced a whole new level of credential attack, so we may see Hyper-V and the newest container model for Windows 10 attacked to gain access to and abuse these tokens for lateral movement and data access. Defensive efforts haven't been terribly successful in their responsiveness in the past, and Active Directory continues to see new attacks on organization-wide authentication with "skeleton keys". So, their implementation of credential provisioning and access token handling will deserve security researchers' attention - Hyper-V technologies and components' attack surface will come under a new focus for years to come. And the DLP implementation for sharing corporate data securely is encouraging as well, but how strong can it be across energy constrained mobile hardware?

Considering that 2014 brought with it over 200 patch-worthy vulnerabilities for the various versions of Internet Explorer, a minimalist refresh of this code with the "Project Spartan" browser would be welcome. Simply put, the IE web browser was hammered in 2014 across all Windows platforms, including their latest. Our AEP and other technologies have been protecting against exploitation of these vulnerabilities in high volume this past year. Not only has its model implementing ActiveX components and its design been under heavy review, but the slew of newer code and functionality enabling "use-after-free" vulnerabilities led to critical remote code execution. The new Spartan browser brings with it large amounts of new code for communications and data sharing, which brings with it Microsoft's track record of introducing hundreds of patch-worthy vulnerabilities annually into their browser code. Hopefully their team won't bring that baggage with them, but the load seems pretty heavy with the new functionality. I didn't see any new security features, development practices, or sandboxes described for it and will wait to see what is in store here.

An unusually large amount of time was set aside to present their "intelligent assistant" Cortana, which started with a somewhat disconnected and bizarre conversation between the presenter and the actual Cortana assistant instance onstage. The devil is in the details when implementing security support for access to data across fairly unpredictable services like this one.

Of course, our products will be ready to go. Kaspersky Lab consumer products will support Windows 10 after its official launch. There will be no need for customers to reinstall Kaspersky Lab solutions for migration onto the new platform. All these products will be patched accordingly and will provide the same exceptional level of protection on the new Windows OS.

Firefox Meta Referrer A Move Toward Browser Privacy

Threatpost for B2B - Wed, 01/21/2015 - 13:57
Mozilla announced the availability of a meta referrer header in Firefox 36 beta. The meta referrer provides users with policy options limiting the personal data sent in web requests.

Exploit for Flash Zero Day Appears in Angler Exploit Kit

Threatpost for B2B - Wed, 01/21/2015 - 12:53
The dangerous Angler exploit kit has a new piece of ammunition to use in its attacks: a fresh Adobe Flash zero-day vulnerability.

Bypass Demonstrated for Microsoft Use-After-Free Mitigation in IE

Threatpost for B2B - Wed, 01/21/2015 - 12:40
A researcher has developed a bypass for Microsoft's latest memory corruption mitigations in Internet Explorer, Heap Isolation and Delay Free.

Hard-Coded FTP Credentials Found in Schneider Electric SCADA Gateway

Threatpost for B2B - Wed, 01/21/2015 - 11:17
Two flaws in Schneider Electric's ETG3000 FactoryCast HMI Gateway allow unauthenticated remote access to the device's FTP server and configuration file.

Oracle Patches Backdoor Vulnerability, Recommends Disabling SSL

Threatpost for B2B - Wed, 01/21/2015 - 10:47
Oracle's January 2015 Critical Patch update includes a fix for a backdoor found in the Oracle E-Business Suite by researcher David Litchfield. The patch is among 169 released in the CPU.

Like a Nesting Doll, Vawtrak Malware Has Many Layers

Threatpost for B2B - Tue, 01/20/2015 - 21:33
Researchers have peeled back more layers on Vawtrak, a relatively new banking Trojan so complex that those who have taken it apart have likened it to a Matryoshka, or Russian nesting doll.

Ubuntu Patches Several Security Flaws

Threatpost for B2B - Tue, 01/20/2015 - 15:28
Ubuntu has released a number of patches for security vulnerabilities in several versions of the OS, including some remote code execution flaws in Thunderbird, which is included with Ubuntu. Thunderbird is Mozilla’s email client, and the company recently fixed several memory corruption vulnerabilities, along with a cross-site request forgery bug and a flaw that could lead to […]

Academics Use Siri to Move Secrets Off Jailbroken iOS Devices

Threatpost for B2B - Tue, 01/20/2015 - 13:01
Researchers describe an attack leverage Siri on jailbroken iOS devices to steal secrets such as credit card numbers or passwords.

Nasty Oracle Vulnerability Leaves Researcher ‘Gobsmacked’

Threatpost for B2B - Tue, 01/20/2015 - 11:46
Oracle on Tuesday will release a huge number of security fixes as part of its quarterly critical patch update, and one of them is a patch for a vulnerability that a well-known security researcher said looks a lot like a back door but was likely just a terrible mistake. The flaw is found in Oracle’s […]

CSRF Vulnerability Patched in GoDaddy Domain Settings

Threatpost for B2B - Tue, 01/20/2015 - 10:50
A cross site request forgery vulnerability in GoDaddy domain settings has been patched two days after it was reported to the domain registrar.

Report: Companies Still Not Patching Security Vulnerabilities

Threatpost for B2B - Tue, 01/20/2015 - 09:00
The Cisco 2015 Annual Security report shows that CISOs and other security personnel are confident about their strategies despite that they are not patching.

Holes in Progressive Dongle Could Lead to Car Hacks

Threatpost for B2B - Mon, 01/19/2015 - 15:19
A device that Progressive sends out to customers to give them a better rate by may be doing more than keeping track of their driving, the devices may be insecure and used to take control of vehicles.

Patched API Flaw Allowed Anyone Access to Verizon Email Accounts

Threatpost for B2B - Mon, 01/19/2015 - 14:52
Verizon patched a vulnerability in an API used by its My FiOS mobile application that allowed any user access to any Verizon email account.
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